Table 1

Patient characteristics of high-risk cohort with severe sepsis and septic shock

CharacteristicsTotal cohortSurvivorsNon-survivorsp Value
Demographics
 N (%)323 (100)251 (78)72 (22)
 Age, mean (SD)66 (17)65 (17)72 (16)0.001
 Gender (male), n (%)183 (57)138 (55)45 (63)0.270
Comorbidities, n (%)
 COPD (4)49 (15)43 (17)5 (7)0.035
 Liver disease (3)34 (12)25 (10)9 (13)0.500
 Nursing home (20)63 (21)41 (17)22 (33)0.006
 Malignancy− (4)39 (14)27 (11)12 (17)0.159
 Malignancy+ (3)35 (12)21 (8)14 (19)0.006
DNR status n (%) (34)90 (28)46 (18)43 (60)<0.001
Illness severity
Sepsis category, n (%) 0.840
  Severe sepsis258 (80)199 (80)*58 (81)
  Septic shock65 (20)51 (20)14 (19)
MEDS, median (IQR)8 (6–11)8 (5–11)11 (8–14)<0.001
PIRO, median (IQR)12 (8–16)12 (8–15)15 (11–17)<0.001
Number of failing organs, median (IQR) (1)2 (1–2)1 (1–2)2 (1–3)<0.001
Vital signs on admission
 Systolic blood pressure, mean (SD) (6)105 (31)107 (31)102 (33)0.244
 Heart rate, mean (SD) (7)110 (24)110 (23)115 (28)0.123
 Respiratory rate, median (IQR) (97)26 (20–34)25 (20–33)29 (23–35)0.065
 Oxygen saturation mean (SD) (31)92 (9)92 (9)90 (9)0.061
Laboratory analysis on admission
 Lactate (mmol/l), median (IQR) (64)3.7 (2.6)2.8 (1.7–4.4)3.9 (2.3–5.4)0.003
 White blood cell count (×109/l), median (IQR) (3)14.2 (9.9)12.0 (7.8–17.4)15.4 (5.6–20.4)0.208
 Platelets (×109/l), median (IQR) (8)215 (146–326)213 (147–320)222 (126–365)0.707
 Creatinine (µg/l), median (IQR)140.0 (91.0–213.0)134.5 (91.0–210.0)170.0 (107.5–255.0)0.048
 Urea (mmol/l), median (IQR) (6)10.9 (7.3–17.5)10.3 (6.8–16.3)15.4 (10.0–24.7)<0.001
ED treatment
 SSC goals achieved, mean (SD)4.3 (1.8)4.3 (1.4)4.5 (1.2)0.379
 Time to antibiotics (hour : minutes), median (IQR) (10)1:33 (0:54–2:25)1:32 (0:54–2:25)1:38 (0:48–2:28)0.856
 Amount of fluids administered, median (IQR) (36)2 (1–3)2 (1–3)2 (1–2)0.865
Outcomes
 Length of hospital stay, median (IQR) (12)8 (5–16)9 (6–16)4 (1–12)<0.001
 ICU admission, n (%) (7)118 (37)87 (35)31 (43)0.181
 In-hospital mortality, n (%) (1)72 (22.4)
  • Missing values are shown in parentheses for every variable.

  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; DNR status, ‘do not resuscitate’ status; ED, emergency department; ICU, intensive care unit; Malignancy+, malignancy with metastases and haematological malignancy; Malignancy−, malignancy without metastases; MEDS, mortality in emergency department sepsis; PIRO, predisposition, infection, response, organ failure; SSC, Surviving Sepsis Campaign.