Table 1

Medication categories

DescriptionNo analgesia givenEntonox only
NO2 and O2
WHO pain ladder level 1
Paracetamol Ibuprofen Aspirin
WHO pain ladder level 2
Co-codamol Tramadol
WHO pain ladder level 3
Morphine Oramorph
  • The types of analgesia prescribed in the ambulance and the accident and emergency department were separated into five categories. Patients were assigned to one of the categories based on their strongest medication prescribed. Examples of the various medications can be seen in italics.