Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the study groups

TotalBreathing information availableBreathing information not available
Men, n (%)408(61.9)174(61.5)234(62.2)
Age, years, median (IQR)76(66–84)76(68–84)76(65–83)
Victims with disabilities in daily life, n (%)76(20.2)36(12.7)40(10.6)
Cardiac arrest at home, n (%)551(83.6)254*(89.8)297(79.0)
Victims described as breathing in various ways, n (%)169(59.7)
Initial rhythm of VF/VT, n (%)113(17.1)43(15.2)70(18.6)
Call–arrival time, min, median (IQR)7(5–10)7(6–9)7(5–10)
Advanced airway management by EMS, n (%)449(68.1)204(72.1)245(65.2)
Epinephrine administration by EMS, n (%)83(12.6)42(14.8)41(10.9)
Time from call to hospital arrival, min, median (IQR)35(28–44)35(29–44)35(27–44)
  • All the continuous variables were presented as medians and IQRs, and the categorical variables were expressed as numbers and percentages.

  • *p<0.05 by χ2 test.

  • EMS, emergency medical service; VF/VT, ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia.