Table 1

Differences between individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who used emergency services in the past 2 months and those who did not, bivariate analysis

N (%)
Predictor variablesEmergency services users (N=50)Emergency service non-users (N=346)p Value†OR (95% CI)
Predisposing
Age, mean (SD)‡19.2 (5.8)18.2 (6.0)0.261.2 (−0.8 to 2.8)
Gender
 Male38 (76.0)278 (80.3)0.471.3 (0.6 to 2.6)
 Female12 (24.0)68 (19.7)1 (reference)
Intellectual disability§
 Yes26 (61.9)155 (50.2)0.151.6 (0.8 to 3.1)
 No16 (38.1)154 (49.8)1 (reference)
ASD severity, Mean (SD)‡25.4 (6.1)22.50 (6.2)<0.01*2.9 (1.0 to 4.7)
Enabling
Family income, M $ thousands (SD)‡66.6 (16.7)65.4 (15.9)0.631.2 (−3.6 to 5.9)
Parent marital status
 Single16 (32.0)73 (21.1)0.081.8 (0.9 to 3.4)
 Married/common-law34 (68.0)273 (78.9)1 (reference)
Crisis scale¶
 Family in crisis11 (22.0)26 (7.6)<0.001**3.4 (1.6 to 7.5)
 Family not in crisis39 (78.0)316 (92.4)1 (reference)
Daytime activities
 Unstructured15 (30.0)37 (10.7)<0.001**3.6 (1.8 to 7.2)
 Structured35 (70.0)309 (89.3)1 (reference)
Social services
 No11 (22.0)118 (34.1)0.090.5 (0.3 to 1.1)
 Yes39 (78.0)228 (65.9)1 (reference)
Need
Psychiatric comorbidity
 Yes24 (48.0)173 (50.0)0.790.9 (0.5 to 1.7)
 No26 (52.0)173 (50.0)1 (reference)
Medical comorbidity
 Yes25 (50.0)109 (31.5)0.01*2.2 (1.2 to 4.0)
 No25 (50.0)237 (68.5)1 (reference)
On medication
 Yes37 (74.0)195 (56.4)0.02*2.2 (1.1 to 4.3)
 No13 (26.0)151 (43.6)1 (reference)
History of hurting self
 Yes27 (54.0)158 (45.7)0.271.4 (0.8 to 2.5)
 No23 (46.0)188 (54.3)1 (reference)
History of hurting others
 Yes34 (68.0)144 (41.6)<0.001**3.0 (1.6 to 5.6)
 No16 (32.0)202 (58.4)1 (reference)
ED visit in last year
 Yes23 (45.1)50 (14.5)<0.001**5.0 (2.7 to 9.5)
 No27 (54.0)296 (85.5)1 (reference)
  • *p<0.05, **p<0.01.

  • †χ2 and t tests were used to calculate p values.

  • ‡Continuous variable; mean difference and CI are reported instead of an OR.

  • §N=351 for this question.

  • ¶N=392 for this question.