Table 1

Characteristics of included studies

Study IDCountryEDsVisitsPatientsOutcomesFactors studied
Baum and Rubenstein6USA11620All, admitted, non-admittedED LOSAdmission, age, trauma vs non-trauma
Biber et al7Germany14653All, trauma, non-traumaED LOSAge, sex
Bickell et al8USA1236AppendicitisED LOS, time to diagnosisAge (paediatric vs adult), sex, minority, payment method, specific symptoms, tests
Brubacher et al9Canada16026AllED LOSSubstance abuse
Capuano et al10France53988 591Non-admittedED LOS, LOS >4 hAcuity, age, diagnosis (definition unclear), sex, tests/treatments, hospital characteristics, time of day
Casalino et al11France3125 478AllED LOS, observation unit LOS, both combinedAdmission, acuity, ambulance, age, sex, tests/treatments
Chang et al12USA51076PsychiatricED LOS >24 hAdmission, severity indicators, age, substance abuse, symptoms, payment method, homelessness, hospital characteristics
Davis et al13USA1169Surgical critical careED LOS (time to decision)Severity indicators, age, sex, tests/treatments
Ding et al14USA4235 928AllED wait, treatment, boarding timesAcuity, ambulance, age, sex, condition category, payment method, timing
Downing et al15UK10694 962AllED LOS >4 h, 4–8 h or >8 hAdmission, ambulance, age, sex, area deprivation, timing
Edmondson et al16USA1120Acute coronary syndromeED LOSSeverity indicators, age, sex, depression, ethnicity, area deprivation
Gardner et al17USA>10088 252All, admitted, dischargedED LOSAcuity, age, sex, ethnicity, payment method, tests, hospital characteristics
Geurts et al4Canada144 204AllED LOSAdmission, acuity, substance abuse, sex, homelessness, frequent use
Hamdy et al18USA31056AllED LOSAge
Karaca et al19USA>1004 955 590Non-admittedED LOSAge, sex, condition categories, ethnicity, payment method, hospital characteristics, timing
Kawano et al20Japan117 744All (age >15), admitted, non-admittedED LOSAge
Latham et al21Canada4Older adults 65+ yearsED LOSAdmission, age
Lowthian et al22Australia>100>7 000 000AllED LOS >4 hAdmission, acuity, ambulance, age, sex
Mahmoud et al23Australia>502 953 731Non-admittedED LOSLanguage (other patient variables controlled but not reported)
Moe et al24Canada122 333AllED LOSAge, frequent use
Mowery et al25USA13973TraumaED LOS (where <5 h), mortalitySeverity indicators, age
Nippak et al26Canada14743AdmittedED LOS, inpatient LOSAcuity, age, comorbidities
Pines et al27USA40814 516ICU, non-ICUED LOS >6 hAcuity, age, sex, ethnicity
Pittock et al28Ireland1117StrokeED LOS, other delaysStroke subtype, hospital characteristics
Rashid et al29USA1147Hip fractureED LOS and six segments thereofSpecific symptoms, age (result not reported), sex, tests (all had some), timing
Rose et al30Canada4618VentilatedED LOSAcuity, age, sex, trauma vs non-trauma, hospital characteristics
Serinken et al31Turkey1235Renal colicED LOSAge, sex, specific symptoms
Shafiei et al32Australia1290PsychiatricED LOSAdmission, alcohol abuse
Slade et al33USA>100193 077AllED LOSMental health, serious disorder, substance abuse (other patient variables controlled but not reported)
Stephens et al34USA1242PsychiatricED LOS >24 hAdmission, ambulance, specific symptoms, sex, ethnicity, payment method
Svenson et al35USA1167Critically illED LOSSurgical trauma
Tilluckdharry et al36USA1443Critically illED LOS >24 hSeverity indicators, age, sex
Wallbrecht et al37USA1245AllED LOS and two segmentsLanguage (other patient variables controlled but not reported)
Weiss et al38USA51092Psychiatric (admitted, discharged)ED LOS and three segmentsAdmission, severity indicators, age, sex, substance abuse, symptoms, ethnicity, payment method, homelessness, tests
Yoon et al39Canada11047AllED LOS and four segmentsAcuity, ambulance, age, sex, tests
  • ED LOS, emergency department length of stay; ICU, intensive care unit.