Table 1

Demographic information, indication and initial vital signs for patients treated with HFNC therapy in the ED

All patients (n=71)Successfully initiated on HFNC (n=43)Failed HFNC (n=28)
Age (months) (median, IQR)9 (3–18)12 (7–20)8 (4–15)
Male n (%)41 (58)23 (53)18 (64)
Comorbidity n (%)
 Nil62 (87)37 (86)25 (89)
 Chronic lung disease4 (6)3 (7)1 (4)
 Congenital heart disease3 (4)3 (7)0 (0)
 Cerebral palsy2 (3)0 (0)2 (7)
Indication for HFNC n (%)
 Bronchiolitis49 (69)28 (65)21 (75)
 Acute lower respiratory tract infection17 (24)11 (26)6 (21)
 Asthma2 (3)1 (2)1 (3)
 Sepsis1 (1)1 (2)0 (0)
 Apnoea1 (1)1 (2)0 (0)
 Cardiac disease1 (1)1 (2)0 (0)
Initial vital signs
 HR; median (IQR)167 (152–182)164 (153–179)172 (150–185)
 RR; median (IQR)63 (54–70)60 (52–65)68 (56–76)
 Temperature (°C); median (IQR)37.5 (37.2–37.9)37.5 (37.3–37.9)37.5 (37.2–39.9)
 Oxygen saturation (%); median (IQR)97 (96–99)97 (96–98)97 (96–99)
Vital signs 2 h after initiation of HFNC
 HR; median (IQR)151 (139–167))144 (136–159)157 (151–170)
 RR; median (IQR)58 (52–65)46 (41–50)61 (55–67)
 Temperature (°C); median (IQR)37.3 (37.1–37.8)37.3 (37.0–37.8)37.4 (37.1–37.8)
 Oxygen saturation (%); median (IQR)96 (94–99)97 (95–98)96 (94–98)
  • HFNC, high-flow nasal cannula.