Table 2

Studies assessing local and total propagation in patients with untreated IDDVT

Author/yearPopulationSample sizeDiagnostic methodDuration of follow-up for primary endpointLocal propagation rateTotal propagation rate
Lagerstedt et al (1985)40Symptomatic medical patients28Isotope uptake then phlebography90 daysUnreported5/28 (17.9%)
Lohr et al (1991)53Symptomatic medical and surgical inpatients75CUS3 months13/75 (17.3%)24/75 (32.0%)
Lohr et al (1995)54Mostly symptomatic surgical and medical inpatients (59.4%)192CUS4 weeks32/192 (16.7%)53/192 (28%)
Schwarz et al (2001)45Symptomatic outpatients with isolated calf muscle vein thrombosis (ICMVT)32CUS3 months8/32 (25%)8/32 (25%) *
Macdonald et al (2003)55Mostly symptomatic surgical and medical inpatients (68.6%) with ICMVT135CUS3 months18/135 (13.3%)22/135 (16.3%)
Lautz et al (2009)48Retrospective cohort of inpatients and outpatients with ICMVT who received at least one follow-up CUS406CUS7.5 (11) months21/406 (5.2%)66/406 (16.3%)
Schwarz et al (2010)38Low-risk ambulatory patients with isolated calf muscle thrombus53CUS3 months1/53 (1.9%)2/53 (3.8%)
Palareti et al (2010)37Symptomatic outpatients65CUS3 months1/64 (1.6%)4/64 (6.3%)
Horner et al (2014)36Symptomatic ambulatory emergency department patients35CUS3 months8/35 (22.9%)11/35 (31.4%)
  • Data are presented as mean (SD), median (IQR) or n/N (percentage) as seen. Local propagation refers to that confined to the calf veins, below the popliteal fossa. Total propagation rate refers to any propagation of thrombus above or below the popliteal trifurcation.

  • *Patients in this study were immediately given therapeutic LMWH on diagnosis of extension to the deep calf veins. This may explain the notably low rate of proximal extension.

  • CUS, compression ultrasound; IDDVT, isolated distal (calf) deep vein thrombosis; LMWH, low molecular weight heparin.