Table 2

EPHPP quality assessment tool rating for individual studies14

Study designFirst authorStudy titleSelection biasStudy designConfoundersBlindingData collection methodsWithdrawals and dropoutsGlobal rating
Before and after studiesChoi15Triage rapid initial assessment by doctor (TRIAD) improves waiting time and processing time of the emergency departmentMMWMMWW
Crane30A lack of effect on patient satisfaction scores in one large urban emergency departmentWMWMSWW
French17Doctor at triage—effect on waiting time and patient satisfaction in a Jamaican hospitalWWMMSMW
Grant16Rapid assessment team reduces waiting timeWMWWMMW
Han18The effect of physician triage on emergency department length of stayMMSMSWM
Imperato20Physician in triage improves emergency department patient throughputMMWMMSM
Imperato19Improving patient satisfaction by adding a physician in triageWMWMSWW
Patel21Team assignment system: expediting emergency department careMMWWWWW
Richardson22Multidisciplinary assessment at triage: a new way forwardWMWMSWW
Rogg23A long-term analysis of physician triage screening in the emergency departmentMMSMMMS
Shetty24Senior streaming assessment further evaluation after triage zone: a novel model of care encompassing various emergency department throughput measuresMMMWSWW
Soremekun25Operational and financial impact of physician screening in the EDMMSWM MM
Soremekun26Impact of physician screening in the ED on patient flowMMMWSMM
Soremekun27The effect of an emergency department dedicated midtrack area on patient flowMMSWSMM
Travers28Avoiding prolonged waiting time during busy periods in the emergency department: is there a role for the senior emergency physician in triage?MMWWWWW
White29Supplemented triage and rapid treatment (START) improves performance measures in the emergency departmentMMMWSM M
Clinical controlled trailsPartovi39Faculty triage shortens emergency department length of stayMSWMSMM
Terris38Making an IMPACT on emergency department flow: improving patient processing assisted by consultant at triageMSWWWSW
 Cohort studiesAsha31Improvement in emergency department length of stay using an early senior medical assessment and streaming model of care: a cohort studyMMSMSSM
Baumann33Team triage: addressing challenges to emergency department flowWMSWMSW
Burstrom32Physician-led team triage based on lean principles may be superior for efficiency and quality? A comparison of three emergency departments with different triage modelsMWSMSSM
Randomised controlled trialsCheng34Implementing wait-time reductions under Ontario government benchmarks (Pay-for-Results): a cluster randomized trial of the effect of a Physician–Nurse supplementary triage assistance team (MDRNSTAT) on emergency department patient wait timesMSSMSSS
Davis37Senior work-up assessment and treatment team in an emergency department: a randomised control trialMSSMSSS
Holroyd35Impact of a triage liaison physician on emergency department overcrowding and throughput: a randomized controlled trialSSSMSMS
Subash36Team triage improves emergency department efficiencyMSWWSWW
  • EPHPP, Effective Public Health Practice Project; M, medium; S, strong; W, weak.