Table 1

Characteristics of included studies

Study design groupStudy and country of originAnnual visits rateInterventionStudy populationStudy periodStudy design
Before and after (BA) studiesChoi et al15
Hong Kong
∼146 000Senior-led team triage
Triage rapid initial assessment by doctor (TRIAD) team of senior physician, nurse, healthcare assistant
26652 weeksBA
Crane et al30
USA
95 000Single senior doctor triage (SDT)
Faculty physician
NR∼3 monthsBA
French et al17
Jamaica
NRSenior doctor and nurse triage
Team consisting of a consultant and two nurses
2574 daysBA
Grant et al16
Australia
NRSenior doctor and nurse triage
Rapid assessment team (RAT)
A senior doctor and registered nurse
97786 monthsBA
Han et al18
USA
50 000Single SDT
board certified emergency physician
17 285∼5 monthsBA
Imperato et al20
USA
36 000Senior-led team triage
Team of attending physician, nurse and technician
18 1096 monthsBA
Imperato et al
201419
USA
36 000Senior-led team triage
Physician in Triage (PIT) board certified emergency physician, registered nurse and technician
9666 monthsBA
Patel and Vinson
USA21
39 000Senior-led team triage
Team assignment system
Teams of one board certified emergency physician, two nurses and usually one technician
78 0172 yearsBA
Richardson et al22
Australia
36 000Senior doctor and nurse triage
Multidisciplinary team
(MDT) comprising a senior registrar/consultant and triage nurse
41486 monthsBA
Rogg et al 23
USA
90 000Senior-led team triage
Supplemented triage and rapid treatment (START)
team of senior physicians and nurses
180 8704 years

BA
 Shetty et al24
Australia
56 000Senior-led team triage
Senior streaming assessment further evaluation after triage (SAFE-T) zone. Team of a senior doctor, nursing and junior medical staff
23 25377 daysBA
Soremekun et al 2012a25
USA
90 000Senior-led team triage
START team of senior physicians and nurses
76 8582 yearsBA
Soremekun et al 2012b26
USA
90 000Senior-led team triage
START
team of senior physicians and nurses
20 3182 yearsBA
Soremekun et al27
USA
68 000Senior doctor and nurse triage
Attending physician and two registered nurses
91 9032 yearsBA
Travers and Lee28
Singapore

NRSenior doctor and nurse triage
Senior emergency physician and nurse triage (SEDNT)
Team of senior physician and nurses
7922 monthsBA
White et al29
USA
85 000Senior-led team triage
START
team of senior physicians and nurses
27 1566 monthsBA
Clinical controlled trails (CCTs)Partovi et al39
USA
52 000Senior-led team triage
Faculty physician, two nurses and emergency medical technician
173416 daysCCT
Terris et al38
UK
108 000Senior doctor and nurse triage
The IMPACT team. Team of emergency medicine consultant and a senior ED nurse
3783 monthsCCT
Cohort studiesAsha and Ajami31
Australia
65 000Senior-led team triage
Senior assessment and streaming (SAS). Team of ED consultant, intern and nurse
18 9623 monthsProspective cohort study
Baumann et al33
USA
52 000Senior-led team triage
Team triage and treatment (T3). Senior physician, an emergency nurse and technician
2431 weekProspective cohort
Burstrom et al32
Sweden
52 000–64 000Senior-led team triage
Consultant-led team of junior doctor and nurse
91 0231 yearRetrospective cohort
Randomised controlled trials (RCTs)Cheng et al34
Canada
45 000Senior doctor and nurse triage
Emergency consultant and nurse triage assessment team
17 034∼7 monthsRCT

Davis et al37
Australia
70 000Senior led-team triage
Senior workup assessment and treatment team (SWAT). Team comprising an emergency medicine consultant, a junior medical officer and an ED nurse
173736 daysRCT
Holroyd et al35
Canada
55 000Senior doctor and nurse triage
Team of certified emergency physician with one year's experience and nurse
57186 weeksRCT
Subash et al36
UK
50 000Senior-led team triage
A team of designated consultant, a middle grade, two senior house officers and a triage nurse
10288 daysRCT
  • ED, emergency department; NR, not reported.