Table 3

Factors associated with seeking alternative care prior to Emergency department visit; bivariate (unadjusted OR) and multivariable regression (adjusted OR)

VariableUnadjusted OR (95% CI)p ValueAdjusted OR (95% CI)*p Value
Female sex1.76 (1.41 to 2.18)<0.0011.49 (1.17 to 1.90)0.001
Marital status (married vs not married)1.26 (1.01 to 1.56)0.039NA
Ethnic background (Caucasian/European vs non-Caucasian/European)1.32 (1.04 to 1.68)0.0241.28 (0.98 to 1.68)0.068
Education level (≤high school vs >high school)0.74 (0.59 to 0.92)0.0060.74 (0.58 to 0.94)0.012
Employment status (employed vs unemployed or other)0.95 (0.76 to 1.18)0.640NA
Living situation (living alone vs living with someone or other)1.06 (0.81 to 1.38)0.687NA
Residence (assisted vs independent or other)1.22 (0.79 to 1.88)0.373NA
Current smoker0.80 (0.64 to 1.01)0.063NA
Family physician (has primary care physician vs does not have primary care physician)†1.60 (1.26 to 2.04)<0.001NA
Influenza shot1.26 (1.00 to 1.59)0.054NA
Injury presentation (injury vs illness/both/other)0.52 (0.42 to 0.66)<0.0010.54 (0.42 to 0.70)<0.001
  • Bold is significant.

  • *Adjusted ORs and their associated p values were obtained from the multivariable model.

  • †Patients self-reported their attachment to a primary care physician. This may not represent formal rostering.

  • NA, not applicable.