Table 1

Characteristics of validity studies of triage systems for paediatric emergency care

Triage systemAuthor, yearCountryNumber of centresSample sizeStudy populationStudy design
Validity assessment
1—PedCTASGravel J et al 25 CanadaMulticentre (12)n=550 940<18 yearsRetrospective
2—PedCTASGravel J et al 26  CanadaMulticentre (9)n=1464<18 yearsProspective
3—PedCTASGravel J et al 27 CanadaOne centren=58 529<18 yearsRetrospective
4—PedCTASGravel J et al 47 CanadaOne centren=28 349<18 yearsRetrospective
5—PedCTASMa W et al 28 CanadaOne centren=16180–19 yearsRetrospective
6—PedCTASGouin S et al 29 CanadaOne centren=12810–19 yearsProspective
7—PedCTASFernandez et al 30 SpainOne centren=57 6170–14 yearsRetrospective
8—PedCTASAl-Hindi AA et al 31 Saudi ArabiaOne centren=33370–12 yearsProspective
9—TTASChang YC et al 32 ThailandOne centren=84 874<18 yearsRetrospective
10—ESI v.4Green NA et al 33 USAOne centren=780<18 yearsRetrospective
11—ESI v.4Travers DA et al 34 USAOne centren=1000<18 yearsProspective
12—ESI v.4Baumann MR et al 35 USAOne centren=510<14 yearsRetrospective
13—ESI v.4Jafari-Rouhi AH et al 36 IranOne centren=1104<18 yearsProspective
14—MTSRoukema J et al 16 NetherlandsOne centren=1065<16 yearsRetrospective
15—MTSVan Veen M et al 37 NetherlandsMulticentre (2)n=13 554<16 yearsProspective
16—MTSSeiger N et al 38 NetherlandsMulticentre (2)n=13 408<16 yearsRetrospective
17—MTSVan Veen M et al 39 NetherlandsMulticentre (2)n=11 260<16 yearsProspective
18—MTSNijman RG  et al 40 NetherlandsOne centren=12551 month to 16 yearsProspective
19—MTSVan Veen M  et al 41 NetherlandsMulticentre (2)n=3975<16 yearsProspective
20—MTSSeiger N  et al 42 NetherlandsOne centren=8592<16 yearsProspective
21—MTSSeiger N et al 43 Netherlands, Portugal and EnglandMulticentre (3)n=60 375<16 yearsRetrospective
22—MTSMadramany AA  et al 44 SpainOne centren=23 173<14 yearsRetrospective
23—SRTSManingas PA et al 45 USAOne centren=7077<13 yearsRetrospective
24—SATSTwomey M et al 12 South AfricaMulticentre (6)n=2014<13 yearsProspective
25—PATSMullan PC et al 46 BotswanaOne centren=35 948<13 yearsRetrospective
  • ESI v.4, Emergency Severity Index version 4; MTS, Manchester Triage System; PATS, Princess Marina Hospital Triage Scale; PedCTAS, paediatric version of Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale; SATS, South African Triage Scale; SRTS, Soterion Rapid Triage System; TTAS, Taiwan Triage and Acuity Scale.