Table 5

Approaches with reference standards and measures in the validation of other five-level triage systems

ApproachesAll (11 studies)
1. Agreement of assigned urgency levels with existing triage systems (criterion validity)3
2. Overtriage and undertriage (criterion validity)1
3. Sensitivity and specificity for certain outcomes (criterion validity)
4. Associations between actual urgency levels of patients and measures in EDs (construct validity)
Overall admissions7
ED length of stay2
Number of resource used in EDs3
Mortality1
Admissions to intensive care or monitored units2
Costs3
Referrals to outpatients after the discharge from EDs1
5. Associations between actual urgency levels of patients and outcomes after hospitalisation (construct validity)
In-hospital mortality2
Hospital length of stay2
Thirty-day mortality1
Sixty-day mortality1
Ninety-day mortality1