Table 2

Access and REBOA information in the studied population

Access and REBOA informationOverall (n=142)24-Hour non-survivors (n=61)24-Hour survivors (n=81)P value*
Bleeding site, n (%)
 Chest30 (21)22 (36)8 (9.9)<0.001
 Abdomen77 (54)24 (39)53 (65)0.002
 Pelvis71 (50)35 (57)36 (44)0.17
 Extrapelvic retroperitoneum19 (13)10 (16)9 (11)0.46
Operator specialty, n (%)0.92
 EM62 (44)26 (43)36 (44)
 EM-IR71 (50)32 (52)39 (48)
 IR6 (4.2)2 (3.3)4 (4.9)
 Others3 (2.1)1 (1.6)2 (2.5)
Experience, n (%)0.96
 Attending119 (84)51 (84)68 (84)
 Fellow4 (2.8)2 (3.3)2 (2.5)
 Senior resident19 (13)8 (13)11 (14)
Location, n (%)0.028
 Emergency department93 (65)47 (77)46 (57)
 Angiography suite26 (18)10 (16)16 (20)
 Operating room11 (7.7)1 (1.6)10 (12)
 Others12 (8.5)3 (4.9)9 (11)
Access method, n (%)0.60
 Percutaneous blindly130 (92)58 (95)72 (89)
 US-guided4 (2.8)1 (1.6)3 (3.7)
 Cut down3 (2.1)1 (1.6)2 (2.5)
 Others5 (3.5)1 (1.6)4 (4.9)
Imaging, n (%)0.82
 US22 (15)8 (13)14 (17)
 X-ray41 (29)18 (30)23 (28)
 Fluoroscopy46 (32)18 (30)28 (35)
Deployment, n (%)0.11
 Zone I135 (95)57 (93)78 (96)
 Zone II5 (3.5)4 (6.6)1 (1.2)
 Zone III2 (1.4)0 (0)2 (2.5)
 Balloon rupture1 (0.7)0 (0)1 (1.2)1.00
 Migration3 (2.1)1 (1.6)2 (2.5)1.00
Duration of aortic occlusion†, min
 Total duration of occlusion50 (25–93)78 (40–144)34 (13–62)<0.001
 Duration of P-REBOA12 (0–50)15 (0–53)12 (0–46)0.93
 P-REBOA, n (%)78 (68)33 (66)45 (69)0.84
  • The data are presented as median (25th-75th centile) for continuous variables or as absolute number (%) for categorical data.

  • *P values were calculated using the Mann–Whitney U test, Fisher’s exact test or χ2 test for the difference between the 24-hour non-survivors and survivors group.

  • †Aortic occlusion times were accurately recorded in 115 patients. The total duration of occlusion and the duration of partial occlusion were calculated for this group.

  • EM, emergency medicine; EM-IR, EM with cross-training in interventional radiology; IR, interventional radiology; P-REBOA, partial REBOA; REBOA, resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta; US, ultrasound.