Table 1

Characteristics and unadjusted results of the study population: intention to treat (n=602)

FactorIntervention
n=323
Control
n=279
p ValueAdjusted value
Female gender229 (71%)206 (74%)0.423
Age (median, IQR)86 (79–90)83 (74–89)0.002
Fracture site<0.001
 Femur164 (51%)143 (51%)
 Tibia/fibula13 (4%)14 (5%)
 Radius29 (9%)35 (12%)
 Humerus29 (9%)56 (20%)
 Other fracture39 (12%)19 (7%)
 No fracture49 (15%)12 (4%)
Arrive by ambulance285 (89%)212 (76%)0.001
Prehospital analgesia175 (54%)152 (55%) 0.086
Triage score0.001
 ATS 1–214 (5%)19 (7%)
 ATS 3170 (53%)191 (68%)
 ATS 4139 (43%)69 (25%)
First pain score median (IQR)†5 (3–8)5 (3–8)
Time to analgesia median (IQR)83 (48–158)82 (41–147) 0. 420. 74
Analgesia <60 min90 (28%)90 (32%)  0.1900. 910
No analgesia38 (12%)25 (9%)0.262
Admitted to hospital268 (86%)235 (86%)0.964
  • *Adjusted for age, fracture type, arrival mode to ED and triage category.

  • †PAINAD for intervention sites, VAS for control sites.

  • ATS, Australasian triage scale; PAINAD, Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia; VAS, visual analogue scale.