Table 1

Characteristics of the study participants and sites evaluated

CharacteristicsSite 1Site 2Site 3
Yearly visits46 00032 00028 000
Shifts per day6–743–4
Shifts evaluated444429202458
Physicians working during the study period221725
Maximum number of concurrent physicians322
Hours of single provider coverage61212
Hours of mid-level provider coverage161814
Mean patients per shift15.0 (SD 4.7)20.9 (SD 6.4)13.2 (SD 3.8)
Percentage Emergency Severity Index 3 or more acute73.176.276.9