Table 4

Results of the QUADAS-2 quality assessment process

StudyRisk of biasApplicability concerns
Patient selectionIndex testReference standardFlow and timingPatient selectionIndex testReference standard
Lalande et al 18 HighUnclearHighUnclearLowUnclearLow
Lee et al 18 LowUnclearUnclearUnclearLowUnclearLow
Paik et al 20 LowUnclearLowUnclearLowLowLow
Rainer et al 21 LowLowUnclearUnclearLowLowLow
Kara et al 21 LowUnclearHighLowLowUnclearLow
Turk et al 23 HighUnclearUnclearLowLowLowLow
Hurley et al 7 LowLowUnclearLowLowLowLow
Hwang and Lee24 HighUnclearHighHighUnclearUnclearUnclear
Griffith et al 25 UnclearUnclearUnclearUnclearLowLowLow
W├╝stner et al 26 LowLowHighHighLowLowUnclear
Wischhofer et al 27 LowUnclearUnclearHighLowLowUnclear
Bitschnau et al 28 LowLowHighUnclearLowLowUnclear
Martino et al 29 HighUnclearHighUnclearLowLowUnclear