Table 2

Summary of characteristics for included studies

StudySettingMean age of EMS patients (years)n, EMS treatment group% female EMS patientsCulprit opioidInterventionPrimary outcomeSecondary outcomeDeaths within 48 hours
Levine et al 7 US
4120513HeroinNaloxone with releaseDeath within 24 hoursDeath with in 30 days1
Boyd et al 6 Helskinki EMS267117.2HeroinNaloxone with releaseDeath within 12 hoursRebound toxicity0
Rudolph et al 10 Copenhagen MECU2241Heroin/morphineNaloxone with releaseDeath within 48 hoursDeath likely to rebound toxicity3
Vilke et al 9 US
39.831716.3HeroinNaloxone with releaseDeath within 12 hoursN/A0
Vilke et al 13 US
37.799816.7HeroinNaloxone with releaseDeath within 12 hoursN/A0
Wampler et al 14 US EMS/SAFD3855228Heroin/methadoneNaloxone with releaseDeath within 48 hoursDeath with in 30 days0
Heyerdahl et al 26 Oslo EMS, outpatient clinic and ED3452831HeroinNaloxone with releaseDeath due to rebound in 1 weekN/A0
  • ED, emergency department; EMS, emergency medical service; LAFD, Los Angeles Fire Department; MECU, Mobile Emergency Care Unit; SAFD, San Antonio Fire Department; SDFD, San Diego Fire Department. N/A, not applicable.