Table 1

Comparisons of the different of the four RCUs: attending is equivalent to senior doctor: typically, >4 years postqualification equivalent to UK consultant level, resident equivalent to junior doctor typically between 1 and 4 years postqualification

University of Maryland School of Medicine/Medical Center – CCRUStony Brook University Medical Center – RACCUniversity of Pennsylvania – ResCCUUniversity of Michigan –  EC3
Size6 ICU rooms3 Resuscitation bays
3 Critical care beds
16 High-acuity beds
3 Resuscitation bays
2–3 Stepdown rooms
9 ICU rooms
5 Resuscitation bays
Annual patient volume~1500 Patients~2500 Critically ill patients
~4000 High-acuity patients
~1000 Patients in first year~2500 Patients
DepartmentR Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center
Department of Surgery
Department of Emergency MedicineDepartment of Emergency MedicineDepartment of Emergency Medicine
Staffing1 Attending
1 Advanced practice provider
1 Charge nurse
4 Bedside nurses
1 Patient care technician
1 Respiratory therapist
1 Unit clerk
1 Attending
2–3 EM residents/APP
1 Scribe
1 Charge nurse
8 Bedside nurses
1 Unit clerk
Shared resources with ED
1 Respiratory therapist
1 Clinical pharmacist
1 Attending
1 PGY 2–4 EM resident or 1 Surgical critical care APP
2–3 Bedside nurses
Shared resources with ED
1 Respiratory therapist
1 Clinical pharmacist
1 Attending
2 Providers (residents, fellows and physician assistants)
1 Charge nurse
4 Bedside nurses
1 Unit clerk
Shared resources with ED
1 Respiratory therapist
1 Clinical pharmacist
Patient accessTransfers from outside hospitals
Floor upgrades
ED admissions
ED admissions
Transfers from outside EDs
ED admissions
Transfers from outside EDs
ED admissions
Transfers from outside EDs
Patient diagnosesAcute neurological emergencies
Acute respiratory distress syndrome
Aortic emergencies
Cardiogenic shock
Haemorrhagic shock
Intra-abdominal sepsis
Septic shock
Submassive/massive pulmonary embolism
Renal failure
Toxic overdoses
ESI level 1, 2 and some 3 from triageAcute liver failure
Acute neurological emergencies
Acute renal failure
Acute respiratory distress syndrome
Aortic emergencies
Cardiogenic shock
Haemorrhagic shock
Septic shock
Submassive/massive pulmonary embolism
Toxic overdoses
Acute neurological emergencies
Acute respiratory distress syndrome
Aortic emergencies
Cardiogenic shock
COPD exacerbation
Diabetic ketoacidosis
End of life care
Haemorrhagic shock
GI bleed and acute liver failure
Postcardiac arrest care
Renal failure
Septic shock
Submassive/massive pulmonary embolism
Toxic overdoses
Undifferentiated patients
Special skillsVV ECMO
VA ECMO
IABP
EVD
REBOA
CRRT
MARS
VA ECMO
VAD management
EVD
Leukapheresis/plasmapheresis
Bronchoscopy
Endoscopy
SLED
VV ECMO
VA ECMO
EVD
Lipophoresis
Plasmaphoresis
CRRT
VA ECMO
VAD
Intermittent haemodialysis
Leukapheresis/plasmapheresis
Bronchoscopy
Endoscopy
EVD
  • APP, advanced practice provider; CCRU, Critical Care Resuscitation Unit; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CRRT, continuous renal replacement therapy; EC3, Emergency Critical Care Centre; ED, emergency department; EM, emergency medicine; ESI, Emergency Severity Index; EVD, external ventricular drain; GI, gastrointestinal; IABP, intra-aortic balloon pump; ICU, intensive care unit; MARS, Molecular Adsorbents Recirculation System; PGY, post-graduate year; RACC, Resuscitation and Acute Critical Care; RCU, resuscitative care unit; REBOA, resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta; ResCCU, Resuscitation and Critical Care Unit; SLED, slow low-efficiency dialysis; VAD, ventricular-assisted devices; VA ECMO, veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; VV ECMO, veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.