Table 2

Patient and study demographics

All patients (n=1924)Conveyed (n=597)Non-conveyed patients (n=1289)Death in community (n=38)
Likelihood of conveyanceLikelihood of hospital admission
Likely (n = 945)Unsure/unlikely (n=344)Likely (n=126)Possibly/Unlikely (n= 1163)
Sex n (%)Male 868 (45.1)
Female 1056 (54.9)
Male 295 (49.4)
Female 302 (50.6)
Male 401 (42.4)
Female 544 (57.6)
Male 151 (43.9)
Female 193 (56.1)
Male 48 (38.1)
Female 78 (61.9)
Male 504 (43.3)
Female 659 (66.7)
Male 21 (55.3)
Female 17 (44.7)
Median age (range)49 (0–104)52 (0–97)47 (0–104)44 (4–96)79 (20–84)43 (0–102)67 (18–95)
Paediatric patients (<18 years) n (%)177 (9.2)63 (10.6)92 (9.7)22 (6.4)0 (0)114 (9.8)0 (0)
Priority of calls n (%)Pre-ARP* (n=320)
R1: 19 (5.9)
R2: 110 (34.4)
C1: 50 (15.6)
C2: 109 (34.1)
C3: 23 (7.2)
C4: 9 (2.8)
Post-ARP† (n=1604)
Category 1: 156 (9.7)
Category 2: 633 (39.5)
Category 3: 750 (46.8)
Category 4: 65 (4.0)
Pre-ARP (n=95)
R1: 4 (4.2)
R2: 40 (42.1)
C1: 19 (20.0)
C2: 28 (29.5)
C3: 1 (1.1)
C4: 3 (3.1)
Post-ARP† (n=502)
Category 1: 85 (16.9)
Category 2: 201 (40.1)
Category 3: 204 (40.6)
Category 4: 12 (2.4)
Pre-ARP (n=129)
R1: 4 (3.1)
R2: 42 (32.6)
C1: 21 (16.3)
C2: 49 (38.0)
C3: 9 (6.9)
C4: 4 (3.1)
Post-ARP† (n=816)
Category 1: 34 (4.2)
Category 2: 337 (41.3)
Category 3: 408 (50.0)
Category 4: 37 (4.5)
Pre-ARP (n=89)
R1: 4 (4.4)
R2: 28 (31.6)
C1: 10 (11.2)
C2: 32 (36.0)
C3: 13 (14.6)
C4: 2 (2.2)
Post-ARP† (n=255)
Category 1: 6 (2.4)
Category 2: 95 (37.3)
Category 3: 138 (54.1)
Category 4: 16 (6.3)
Pre-ARP (n=25)
R1: 2 (8.0)
R2: 10 (40.0)
C1: 5 (20.0)
C2: 4 (16.0)
C3: 3 (12.0)
C4: 1 (4.0)
Post-ARP† (n=101)
Category 1: 5 (4.9)
Category 2: 50 (49.6)
Category 3: 40 (39.6)
Category 4: 6 (5.9)
Pre-ARP (n=193)
R1: 6 (3.1)
R2: 60 (31.1)
C1: 26 (13.5)
C2: 77 (39.9)
C3: 19 (9.8)
C4: 5 (2.6)
Post-ARP† (n=970)
Category 1: 35 (3.6)
Category 2: 382 (39.4)
Category 3: 506 (52.2)
Category 4: 47 (4.8)
Pre-ARP (n=7)
R1: 7 (100)
Post-ARP† (n=31)
Category 1: 31 (100)
Method of dispatch n (%)Primary dispatch: 1366 (71.0)
Crew request: 558 (29.0)
Primary dispatch: 475 (79.6)
Crew request :122 (20.4)
Primary dispatch: 604 (63.9)
Crew request: 340 (36.1)
Primary dispatch: 269 (78.2)
Crew request: 76 (21.8)
Primary dispatch: 49 (38.9)
Crew request: 76 (61.1)
Primary dispatch: 822 (70.7)
Crew request: 340 (29.3)
Primary dispatch: 28 (73.7)
Crew request: 10 (26.3)
Median length of consultation (HH:MM) (range)01:11 (0:13–03:54)01:20 (0:14–3:54)01:10 (0:23–3:36)0:55 (0:13–2:32)01:35 (0:33–3:34)01:04 (0:13–02:37)01:29 (0:20–3:02)
Diagnostics not available to regular LAS resources n (%)No of patients: 655 (34.0)
POC bloods : 412 (21.4)
POC VBG/ABG 357 (18.6)
Urinalysis: 387 (20.1)
UPT: 149 (7.7)
No of patients: 179 (30.0)
POC bloods : 130 (21.8)
POC VBG/ABG 137 (22.9)
Urinalysis: 69 (11.6)
UPT: 22 (3.7)
No of patients: 386 (40.8)
POC bloods : 247 (26.1)
POC VBG/ABG 196 (20.7)
Urinalysis: 247 (26.1)
UPT: 100 (10.6)
No of patients: 81 (23.5)
POC bloods : 26 (7.6)
POC VBG/ABG 16 (4.7)
Urinalysis: 71 (20.6)
UPT: 27 (7.8)
No of patients: 82 (65.1)
POC bloods : 76 (60.3)
POC VBG/ABG 60 (47.6)
Urinalysis: 34 (27.0)
UPT: 2 (1.59)
No of patients: 385 (33.1)
POC bloods : 197 (16.9)
POC VBG/ABG 152 (13.1)
Urinalysis: 284 (24.4)
UPT: 125 (10.7)
N/A
Diagnosis frequency Most encountered
  1. Other general medical disorders 16.5%

  2. Gastrointestinal disorders 8.2%

  3. Urological disorders 6.8%

  4. Musculoskeletal disorders 6.8%

  5. Respiratory disorders 6.5%

 Most commonly conveyed§
  1. Major trauma 90%

  2. Fractures/dislocations 86.6%

  3. Cardiac disorders 76.3%

  4. Neurological disorders 61.9%

  5. Respiratory disorders 36.5%

 Most likely to have been otherwise conveyed§
  1. Palliative care 80%

  2. Ear/nose/throat 73.2%

  3. Gastrointestinal disorders 67.5%

  4. Injuries: wounds 66.2%

  5. Musculoskeletal disorders 66.2%

 Unsure/unlikely to have been conveyed§
  1. Frailty 50%

  2. Other 47.2%

  3. Mental health 36.7%

  4. TLOC 29.1%

  5.  Injuries: other 27.7%

  6.  Musculoskeletal disorders 27.7%

 Most likely to have otherwise been admitted§
  1. Palliative care 60%

  2. Respiratory disease 20.6%

  3. Urological disorders 16.8%

  4. Other general medical disorders 10.7%

  5. Frailty 8.2%

 Possibly/unlikely to have been otherwise admitted§
  1. Musculoskeletal disorders 91.5%

  2. Other 88.9%

  3. Mental health 81.7%

  4. Injuries: wounds 81.2%

  5.  Ear/nose/throat: 80.3%

  6. Gastrointestinal disorders: 80.3%

N/A
Interventions performed on scene
(non-exhaustive) n (%)
Medications
Analgesia: 484 (25.2)
Antibiotics: 169 (8.8)
Other medications: 390 (20.3)
Oxygen :17 (0.9)
Intravenous fluids: 137 (7.1)
Critical care interventions
Cardiac arrest management: 58 (3.0)
Airway support: 11 (0.57)
RSI/intubation: 21 (1.1)
Sedation: 9 (0.47)
Trauma interventions
Immobilisation/splinting: 11 (0.57)
Fracture/dislocation management :45 (2.33)
Wound closure/care: 126 (6.5)
Other medical care
Catheter care: 30 (1.6)
Epistaxis management: 6 (0.3)
Other
Ongoing care facilitation: 37 (1.9)
Non-clinical intervention: 15 (0.8)
Advice/reassurance alone: 269 (14.0)
No intervention/none documented: 423 (22.0)
Medications
Analgesia: 152 (25.4)
Antibiotics: 44 (7.4)
Other medications: 130 (21.8)
Oxygen: 5 (0.8)
Intravenous fluids: 44 (7.4)
Critical care interventions
Cardiac arrest management: 28 (4.7)
Airway support: 1 (0.2)
RSI/intubation: 7 (1.2)
Sedation: 2 (0.4)
Trauma interventions Immobilisation/splinting: 3 (0.5)
Fracture/dislocation management: 16 (2.7)
Wound closure/care: 44 (7.4)
Other medical care
Catheter care: 14 (2.3)
Epistaxis management: 3 (0.5)
Other
Ongoing care facilitation: 7 (1.2)
Non-clinical intervention: 6 (1.0)
Advice/reassurance alone: 98 (16.4)
No intervention/none documented: 168 (28.1)
Medications
Analgesia: 240 (25.4)
Antibiotics: 93 (1.0)
Other medications: 198 (21.0)
Oxygen: 10 (1.1)
Intravenous fluids : 63 (6.7)
Critical care interventions
Cardiac arrest management: 0 (0)
Airway support: 1 (0.1)
RSI/intubation: 0 (0)
Sedation: 6 (0.6)
Trauma interventions
Immobilisation/splinting: 8 (0.8)
Fracture/dislocation management: 24 (2.5)
Wound closure/care: 56 (5.9)
Other medical care
Catheter care: 14 (1.5)
Epistaxis management: 3 (0.3)
Other
Ongoing care facilitation: 21 (2.2)
Non-clinical intervention: 9 (1.0)
Advice/reassurance alone: 127 (13.4)
No intervention/none documented: 159 (16.8)
Medications
Analgesia: 92 (26.7)
Antibiotics: 32 (9.3)
Other medications: 62 (18.0)
Oxygen: 2 (0.6)
Intravenous fluids: 30 (8.7)
Critical care interventions
Cardiac arrest management: 0 (0)
Airway support: 1 (0.3)
RSI/intubation: 0 (0)
Sedation: 1 (0.3)
Trauma interventions
Immobilisation/splinting: 0 (0)
Fracture/dislocation management: 5 (1.5)
Wound closure/care: 26 (7.6)
Other medical care
Catheter care: 2 (0.6)
Epistaxis management: 0 (0)
Other
Ongoing care facilitation: 9 (2.6)
Non-clinical intervention: 0 (0)
Advice/reassurance alone: 44 (12.8)
No intervention/none documented: 96 (27.9)
Medications
Analgesia: 35 (27.8)
Antibiotics: 7 (5.6)
Other medications: 30 (23.8)
Oxygen: 3 (2.4)
Intravenous fluids: 10 (7.9)
Critical care interventions
Cardiac arrest management: 0 (0)
Airway support: 0 (0)
RSI/intubation: 0 (0)
Sedation: 1 (0.8)
Trauma interventions
Immobilisation/splinting: 1 (0.8)
Fracture/dislocation management: 2 (1.6)
Wound closure/care: 7 (5.6)
Other medical care
Catheter care: 0 (0)
Epistaxis management: 0 (0)
Other
Ongoing care facilitation: 1 (0.8)
Non-clinical intervention: 3 (2.4)
Advice/reassurance alone: 12 (9.6)
No intervention/none documented: 28 (22.2)
Medications
Analgesia: 297 (25.6)
Antibiotics: 118 (10.1)
Other medications: 230 (19.8)
Oxygen: 9 (0.8)
Intravenous fluids: 83 (7.1)
Critical care interventions
Cardiac arrest management: 0 (0)
Airway support: 2 (0.2)
RSI/intubation: 0 (0)
Sedation: 6 (0.5)
Trauma interventions
Immobilisation/splinting: 7 (0.6)
Fracture/dislocation management: 27 (2.3)
Wound closure/care: 75 (6.4)
Other medical care
Catheter care: 16 (1.4)
Epistaxis management: 3 (0.3)
Other
Ongoing care facilitation: 29 (2.5)
Non-clinical intervention: 6 (0.5)
Advice/reassurance alone: 159 (13.7)
No intervention/none documented: 226 (19.3)
Critical care interventions
Cardiac arrest management: 30 (78.9)‡
 (including:
4: traumatic arrest)
 Airway support: 8 (21.0)
 RSI/intubation: 14 (36.8)
 Thoracostomies: 2 (5.3)
  • *Pre-ARP categories of call included R1: immediately life-threatening, and R2: life-threatening, 8 min response time; C1, C2, C3: urgent care, 20–30 min response; C4: non-emergency, 4 hour response.

  • †Post-ARP categories of call: category 1: life-threatening, requiring 7 min response; category 2: emergency, 16 min response; category 3: urgent, 120 min response; category 4: less urgent requiring 180 min response. category 2–4 requires a conveying resource within timeframe.

  • ‡NB Additional 8 arrests had no cardiac arrest management—PLE on scene.

  • §: values displayed are a % of overall diagnosis frequency)

  • ABG, arterial blood gas; POC, point of care; RSI, rapid sequence induction; TLOC, transient loss of consciousness; UPT, urine pregnant test; VBG, venous blood gas.