Table 1

Characteristics of patients with different injury severity

VariableTotal sampleISS 1–8ISS 9–15ISS ≥16
n (% total population)193 290 (–)45 757 (23.6)89 129 (46.1)58 404 (30.2)
Age, median (IQR)60 (41.2–78.8)63.2 (41.8–81.1)60.7 (44.9–78.3)55.1 (35.4–77.0)
Sex (male), n (%)110 030 (56.9)23 926 (52.3)46 417 (52.1)39 687 (67.9)
Blunt trauma, n (%)186 435 (96.5)44 523 (97.3)85 385 (95.8)56 527 (96.8)
Mechanism of injury, n (%)
 Fall <2 m100 780 (52.1)25 295 (55.3)54 199 (60.8)21 286 (36.4)
 Fall >2 m27 315 (14.1)6854 (15.0)9672 (10.9)10 789 (18.5)
 Assault4801 (2.5)678 (1.5)2654 (3.0)1469 (2.5)
 RTC42 853 (22.2)8412 (18.4)16 365 (18.4)18 076 (30.9)
 Other17 541 (9.1)4518 (9.9)6239 (7.0)6784 (11.6)
ISS, median (IQR)9 (9–16)4 (4–4)9 (9–9)22 (17–26)
Location of injury, n (%)
 AIS head ≥322.6 (22.4–22.7)6013 (6.7%)37 660 (64.5%)
 AIS face ≥30.4 (0.37–0.43)141 (0.2%)626 (1.1%)
 AIS thorax ≥318.2 (18.0–18.4)15 120 (17.0%)20 016 (34.3%)
 AIS abdomen ≥33.2 (3.1–3.3)1904 (2.1%)4337 (7.4%)
 AIS spine ≥37.3 (7.2–7.4)9114 (10.2%)5075 (8.7%)
 AIS limb ≥333.2 (33.1–33.5)54 298 (60.9%)9992 (17.1%)
 AIS other ≥30.8 (0.7–0.8)351 (0.4%)1202 (2.1%)
30-day mortality, % (n)7.3% (14 100)2.2% (1000)3.2% (2882)17.5% (10 218)
Life-saving interventions, n (%)
 Any29 117 (15.1)2439 (5.3)7848 (8.8)18 830 (32.2)
 Restrictive definition*19 288 (10.0)803 (1.8)3775 (4.2)14 710 (25.2)
  Intubation/ventilation6218 (3.2)173 (0.4)699 (0.8)5346 (9.2)
  Thoracostomy1043 (0.5)9 (0.0)162 (0.2)872 (1.5)
  IO access128 (0.1)8 (0.0)26 (0.0)94 (0.2)
  ALS1447 (0.7)42 (0.1)177 (0.2)1228 (2.1)
  Direct compression of haemorrhage379 (0.2)34 (0.1)155 (0.2)190 (0.3)
  Pelvic binder2026 (1.0)170 (0.4)461 (0.5)1395 (2.4)
  Tranexamic acid6775 (3.5)457 (1.0)1774 (2.0)4544 (7.8)
  Laparotomy4086 (2.1)462 (1.0)1386 (1.6)2238 (3.8)
  Thoracotomy2110 (1.1)41 (0.1)806 (0.9)1263 (2.2)
  Proximal vascular control505 (0.3)30 (0.1)286 (0.3)189 (0.3)
  Embolisation327 (0.2)21 (0.0)56 (0.1)250 (0.4)
  Neurosurgery5986 (3.1)10 (0.0)107 (0.1)5869 (10.0)
  Spinal nursing4436 (2.3)992 (2.1)2053 (2.3)1391 (2.4)
  Anticonvulsant690 (0.4)64 (0.1)178 (0.2)448 (0.8)
  Correction of hypoglycaemia131 (0.1)24 (0.1)45 (0.1)62 (0.1)
  Rewarming977 (0.5)62 (0.1)266 (0.3)649 (1.1)
  >4 units blood transfusion4348 (2.2)121 (0.3)854 (1.0)3373 (5.8)
  • *Restrictive definition: advanced airway management, mechanical ventilation, ALS, transfusion ≥4 units of blood, urgent non-orthopaedic surgical or radiological interventions (thoracotomy, laparotomy, neurosurgery, haemorrhage control).

  • AIS, Abbreviated Injury Scale; ALS, Advanced Life Support; IO, intraosseous; ISS, Injury Severity Score; RTC, Road Traffic Collision.