Table 2

Scenario analysis for early presenters based on travel time difference

HEMS vs GEMSAir (pInd; pDep; pDead)GBA (pInd; pDep; pDead)ICER% CE at £20k/QALY
Travel time (mins)60 min difference
300 vs 3600.57; 0.36; 0.070.53; 0.39; 0.08£28 02714.862.9
270 vs 3300.59; 0.35; 0.060.53; 0.39; 0.08£26 31817.470.6
240 vs 3000.61; 0.33; 0.060.57; 0.36; 0.07£27 41518.764.7
180 vs 2400.64; 0.30; 0.060.61; 0.33; 0.06£41 37014.126.2
Travel time (min)45 min difference
315 vs 3600.56; 0.37; 0.070.53; 0.39; 0.08£37 5458.325.4
285 vs 3300.58; 0.35; 0.070.55; 0.37; 0.08£35 2669.427.7
255 vs 3000.60; 0.34; 0.060.57; 0.36; 0.07£34 86410.829.1
195 vs 2400.63; 0.31; 0.060.61; 0.33; 0.06£58 4148.816.6
  • CE, cost-effective; GBA, ground-based ambulance; GEMS, ground emergency medical services; HEMS, helicopter emergency medical services; ICER, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio; QALY, quality-adjusted life year.