Table 1

HOPE registry subanalysis on patients treated with NIV and according to the primary endpoint

Overall NIV population
(390)
No primary endpoint
(217)
Primary endpoint
(173)
P value
Demographic data and baseline characteristics
 Age, year median (IQR)70 (58–79) n=39062 (52–73) n=217)76 (68–83) n=173<0.001
 Female sex, n (%)133/390 (34.1)78/217 (35.9)55/173 (31.8)0.4
 Obesity, n (%)70/273 (25.6)40/156 (25.6)30/117 (25.6)1.0
 Hypertension, n (%)222/383 (58.0)100/214 (46.7)122/169 (72.2)<0.001
 Dyslipidaemia, n (%)141/380 (37.1)63/213 (29.6)78/167 (46.7)0.001
 Current or previous smoker, n (%)103/338 (30.5)54/185 (29.2)60/153 (39.2)0.052
 DM, n (%)70/354 (19.8)32/201 (15.9)38/153 (24.8)0.04
 Prior stroke, n (%)41/361 (11.4)18/200 (9.0)23/161 (14.3)0.1
 Heart disease, n (%)113/390 (29)50/217 (23.0)63/173 (36.4)0.004
 Lung disease, any n (%)85/390 (21.8)42/217 (19.4)43/173 (24.9)0.2
  Asthma, n (%)18/390 (4.6)14/217 (6.5)4/173 (2.3)0.09
  COPD, n (%)37/390 (9.5)16/217 (7.4)21/173 (12.1)0.1
 Restrictive lung disease, n (%)5/390 (1.3)1/217 (0.5)4/173 (2.3)0.2
 Liver disease, n (%)16/347 (4.6)9/192 (4.7)7/155 (4.5)0.9
 Chronic kidney disease CL <30, n (%)31/352 (8.8)7/197 (3.6)24/155 (15.5)<0.001
 Cancer history, n (%)62/366 (16.9)32/206 (15.5)30/160 (18.8)0.5
 Connective disease, n (%)17/361 (4.7)6/200 (3.0)11/161 (6.8)0.09
 Any immunosuppressive condition, n (%)32/320 (10.0)15/180 (8.3)17/140 (12.1)0.3
Prior therapy
 Anticoagulation, n (%)61/370 (16.5)26/206 (12.6)35/164 (21.3)0.03
 Antiplatelet, n (%)73/372 (19.6)29/207 (14.0)44/165 (26.7)0.002
 ACEi/ARB, n (%)158/383 (41.3)75/214 (35.5)82/169 (48.5)0.01
 B-blockers, n (%)82/365 (22.5)38/205 (18.5)44/160 (27.5)0.04
 B-2 agonists, n (%)59/368 (16)27/206 (13.1)32/162 (19.8)0.09
 Inhaled corticosteroids, n (%)41 (11.2)18/204 (8.8)23/163 (14.1)0.1
 Home oxygen therapy, n (%)20/381 (5.2)8/212 (3.8)12/169 (7.1)0.1
 Antidepressant, n (%)55/371 (14.8)22/205 (10.7)33/166 (19.9)0.01
Clinical presentation
 Fever, n (%)325/380 (85.5)185/210 (88.1)140/170 (82.4)0.1
 Dyspnoea, any entity n (%)259 (66.4)134/206 (65.0)125/168 (74.4)0.051
 Tachypnoea, n (%)143/354 (40.4)64/193 (33.2)79/161 (49.1)0.002
 O2 saturation below 92%, n (%)189/373 (50.7)67/203 (33.0)122/170 (71.8)<0.001
 Diarrhoea, n (%)52/350 (14.9)36/194 (18.6)16/156 (10.3)0.03
 Vomiting, n (%)23/356 (6.5)18/199 (9.0)5/157 (3.2)0.03
 Hyposmia/anosmia, n (%)17/343 (5.0)14/190 (7.4)3/153 (2.0)0.02
 Dysgeusia, n (%)23/342 (6.7)17/188 (9.0)6/154 (3.9)0.06
 Cough, n (%)254/375 (67.7)145/212 (68.4)109/163 (66.9)0.8
 Max temperature at presentation (°C), median (IQR)37.7 (36.9–38.4) n=18037.6 (36.8–38.5) n=9537.7 (37–38.5) n=850.4
 BP abnormality, n (%)43/383 (11.2)17/216 (7.9)26/167 (15.6)0.02
Laboratory data
 Lymphocytopenia (<1.5×109/L), n (%)292/358 (81.6)149/202 (73.8)143/156 (91.7)<0.001
 Thrombocytopenia (<150 k), n (%)98/372 (26.3)53/213 (24.9)45/159 (28.3)0.5
 Anaemia at presentation, n (%)116/373 (31.1)52/212 (24.5)64/161 (39.8)0.002
 Creatinine (mg/dL), median (IQR)0.96 (0.75–1.35) n=3150.9 (0.7–1.16) n=1781.13 (0.85–1.58) n=137<0.001
 High levels of D-dimer, n (%)245/335 (73.1)128/192 (66.7)117/143 (81.8)0.002
 High levels of troponin, n (%)66/243 (27.2)23/137 (16.8)43/106 (40.6)<0.001
 High transaminase level, n (%)176/343 (51.3)91/189 (48.1)85/154 (55.2)0.2
 High levels of LDH, n (%)300/355 (84.5)163/200 (81.5)137/155 (88.4)0.08
 High levels of ferritin, n (%)146/244 (59.8)89/140 (63.6)57/104 (54.8)0.2
 High levels of CRP, n (%)366/380 (96.3)202/212 (95.3)164/168 (97.6)0.2
 High levels of procalcitonin, n (%)95/312 (30.4)38/171 (22.2)57/141 (40.4)0.001
 Bilateral CXR abnormality, n (%)263/360 (73.1)137/201 (68.2)126/159 (79.2)0.02
In-hospital therapy
 Corticosteroids, n (%)161/370 (43.5)64/202 (31.7)97/168 (57.7)<0.001
 Chloroquine, n (%)311/372 (83.6)178/205 (86.8)133/167 (79.6)0.06
 Antivirals, n (%)276/377 (73.2)162/212 (76.4)114/165 (69.1)0.1
 Interferon, n (%)67/366 (18.3)31/205 (15.1)36/161 (22.4)0.08
 Tocilizumab, n (%)58/363 (16)28/204 (13.7)30/159 (18.9)0.2
 Antibiotic, n (%)277/368 (75.3)138/203 (68.0)139/165 (84.2)<0.001
 ACEi/ARB, n (%)63/368 (17.1)37/209 (17.7)26/159 (16.4)0.7
 Pronation in NIV, n (%)63/372 (16.9)30/206 (14.6)33/166 (19.9)0.2
In-hospital complications
 Sepsis, n (%)143/375 (38.1)60/210 (28.6)83/165 (50.3)<0.001
 Relevant bleeding, n (%)15/354 (4.2)6/198 (3.0)9/156 (5.8)0.2
 Embolic event, n (%)12/361 (3.3)6/205 (2.9)6/156 (3.8)0.6
 Renal failure during admission, n (%)113/376 (30.1)34/208 (16.3)79/168 (47.0)<0.001
 Heart failure during admission, n (%)43/373 (11.5)12/211 (5.7)31/162 (19.1)<0.001
 Circulatory or ECMO support, n (%)33/361 (9.1)2/201 (1.0)31/160 (19.4)<0.001
 Length of in-hospital stay in days, median (IQR)8 (4–15) n=33810 (5–16) n=1787 (3–12) n=1600.006
  • ACEi, ACE inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; CL, Creatinine clearance; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CRP, C reactive protein; DM, diabetes mellitus; ECMO, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; LDH, lactic dehydrogenase; NIV, non-invasive ventilation.