Table 1

Characteristics associated with hospitalisation and severity of illness following discharge from the ED

Age-and sex- adjusted modelMultivariable-adjusted model*
OR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P value
Age, per 10 years 1.48 (1.32 to 1.66) <0.001 1.34 (1.10 to 1.48) <0.001
Male sex1.27 (0.84 to 1.93)0.27
African-American race0.77 (0.41 to 1.34)0.380.48 (0.23 to 0.92)0.05
Hispanic ethnicity0.75 (0.47 to 1.19)0.230.61 (0.36 to 1.02)0.06
Obesity2.13 (1.23 to 3.59)0.01
Hypertension 2.11 (1.30 to 3.40) 0.002 1.92 (1.07 to 3.41) 0.03
Diabetes mellitus 2.78 (1.64 to 4.62) <0.001 2.20 (1.18 to 4.02) 0.01
Prior myocardial infarction or heart failure3.13 (1.48 to 6.40)0.0021.94 (0.80 to 4.54)0.13
Prior COPD or asthma 2.69 (1.59 to 4.45) <0.001 2.21 (1.22 to 3.92) 0.01
Chronic kidney disease3.23 (1.50 to 6.75)0.0022.04 (0.83 to 4.82)0.11
Systolic blood pressure, per 10 mm Hg 0.84 (0.74 to 0.95) 0.005 0.74 (0.66 to 0.90) <0.001
Diastolic blood pressure, per 10 mm Hg†0.79 (0.65 to 0.95)0.02
Heart rate, per 10 beats per minute†0.93 (0.81 to 1.06)0.29
Respiratory rate†1.04 (0.96 to 1.13)0.29
Oxygen saturation†0.97 (0.86 to 1.10)0.64
Maximal temperature >100.4°Fahrenheit† 2.30 (1.41 to 3.71) <0.001 2.89 (1.71 to 4.82) <0.001
  • The primary outcome of COVID-19 severity score in the total sample was defined as an ordinal variable wherein: 0=never admitted, 1=admitted but never required intensive care, 2=required intensive care but never intubation and 3=required intubation.

  • All comorbidities (obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, prior myocardial infarction or heart failure, prior COPD or asthma chronic kidney disease) were identified by ICD coding according to standard Elixhauser comorbidity definitions.8

  • Bolded characteristics were significant at a P value < 0.05 for both the Age- and sex-adjusted model as well as the Multivariable-adjusted model.

  • *To avoid model overfitting given the sample size, covariates included in the multivariable model were selected using stepwise backward selection by AIC.

  • †All vital signs were measured during the patient’s first clinical encounter in the ED.

  • AIC, Akaike Information Criteria; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.