Table 1

Study characteristics of 10 detailed studies

Screening Tool; Author (Year)CPSS; Kothari et al (1999)5 FAST*
Smith et al (1999)15
LAPSS; Kidwell et al (2000)12 MASS; Bray et al (2005)24 No tool
Mosley et al (2007)25
MASS; Bray et al (2010)26 LAPSS; Chen et al (2013)27 CPSS;
Brandler et al (2015)18
EMS protocol;
Andersson et al (2018)29
CPSS; Oostema et al (2019)20
Total no of stroke patients49813673187199997750454186
Total no of false negative stroke patients13 (8)32 (40)4 (2)7 (10)44 (23)8 (4)215 (22)282 (38)218 (48)45 (24)
Mean age63.7NSNSNS7576.545 (21%)>45NS76.182
Female n (%)9 (69)NSNSNS25 (57)4 (50)NSNS106 (49)28 (62)
Stroke type (%)10 (77) Posterior circulation stroke
3 (23) Anterior circulation stroke
PICH 7 (22)
Ischaemic stroke 25 (78)
NSNSNS4 (50) Posterior circulation stroke
3 (38) PICH
1 (12) TIA
NSNSPICH 31 (14)
Ischaemic stroke 172 (79)
SAH 15 (7)
PopulationStroke and non-stroke from ED and the inpatient neurology serviceConfirmed and suspected strokeConfirmed, suspected and non- strokeSuspected strokeSuspected strokeConfirmed and suspected strokeConfirmed, suspected and non- strokeSuspected strokeConfirmed strokeConfirmed and suspected stroke
Study TypeObservational studyObservational studyObservational studyObservational studyObservational studyCross-sectional observational studyObservational studyObservational studyObservational studyObservational study
Screening completed byPhysicians, paramedics and techniciansParamedicsParamedicsParamedicsParamedicsParamedicsParamedicsParamedicsAmbulance technicians and nursesParamedics
Timing of data collectionProspectiveRetrospectiveProspectiveProspectiveProspectiveRetrospectiveProspectiveRetrospectiveRetrospectiveProspective
Data collection periodNS6 months7 months12 months6 months5 months7 months24 months12 months12 months
  • *FAST (language, visual field, motor strength and gait)

  • CPSS, Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale; ED, Emergency Department; EMS, emergency medical service; FAST, Face Arm Speech Test; LAPSS, Los Angeles Prehospital Stroke Scale; MASS, Melbourne Ambulance Stroke Screen; NS, not stated; PICH, primary intracerebral haemorrhage; SAH, subarachnoid haemorrhage.