Table 3

Study characteristics of 11 limited detail studies

Screening Tool; Author (Year)CPSS; Ramanujam et al (2008)13 CPSS; Frendl et al (2009)14 OPSS; Chenkin et al (2009)31 FAST; Huwez and Caswell (2011)22 FAST; Sheppard et al (2013)23 MedPACS vs CPSS; Studnek et al (2013)16 ROSIER and FAST; Fothergill et al (2013)21 CPSS and LAPSS; Asimos et al (2014)17 FAST; Berglund et al 201430 ROSIER vs CPSS; Mingfeng et al (2012)28 C-STAT; McMullan et al (2018)19
No of total stroke patients47715422935 posterior stroke141MedPACS 123; CPSS 94ROSIER 27; FAST 21CPSS 663; LAPSS 805233ROSIER 379 CPSS 383158
No of total false negative stroke patients247 (52)18 (2)27 (12)11 (31)35 (25)MedPACS
48 (39); CPSS 39 (42)
ROSIER 6 (22); FAST 6, (29)CPSS 130 (20); LAPSS 209 (26)27 (12)ROSIER 38 (10); CPSS 43 (11)22 (14)
Mean ageNSNSNSNSNSNSNSNSNSNSNS
Female (%) NSNSNSNSNSNSNSNSNSNSNS
PopulationSuspected stroke or TIASuspected stroke or TIASuspected stroke or TIAConfirmed strokeConfirmed strokeSuspected stroke or TIASuspected stroke or TIASuspected stroke or TIA in the EDSuspected stroke or TIASuspected stroke or TIASuspected stroke or TIA
Study TypeObservational studyObservational studyObservational studyCase note reviewCase note reviewCase note reviewObservational studyObservational studyObservational studyObservational studyObservational study
Screening completed byEMS (recorded data)EMS (recorded data)EMS (recorded data)EMS (recorded data)EMS (recorded data)EMS (recorded data)EMSEMS (recorded data)EMS (recorded data)Emergency physician in the pre-hospital settingEMS
Timing of data collectionRetrospectiveRetrospectiveRetrospectiveRetrospectiveRetrospectiveRetrospectiveProspectiveRetrospectiveRetrospectiveProspectiveProspective
Data collection period12 monthsNS12 monthsNS9 months6 months14 months26 months6 months18 months6 months
  • CPSS, Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale; C-STAT, Cincinnati Stroke Triage Assessment Tool ; EMS, emergency medical service; FAST, Face Arm Speech Test; MedPACS, Medic Prehospital Assessment for Code Stroke; NS, not stated; OPSS, Ontario Prehospital Stroke Screening; ROSIER, Recognition of Stroke in the Emergency Room; ROSIER, Recognition of Stroke in the Emergency Room; TIA, transient ischaemic attack.