Table 4

Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for each study and the summary statistics for the meta-analysis

Sensitivity estimate
(95% CI)
Specificity estimate
(95% CI)
Pretest probability of admission (nearest %)Positive LR; negative LRPPV estimate
(95% CI)
NPV estimate
(95% CI)
Cameron et al 5 0.812 (0.782 to 0.840)0.774 (0.748 to 0.799)413.59;
0.24
0.712 (0.680 to 0.742)0.857 (0.833 to 0.878)
Kosowsky et al 7 0.617 (0.518 to 0.709)6.23;
0.43
Beardsell and Robinson. 8 0.690 (0.647 to 0.731)11.16;
8.87
Stover-Baker et al 15 0.756 (0.702 to 0.805)0.845 (0.819 to 0.869)254.88;
0.29
0.622 (0.569 to 0.673)0.911 (0.889 to 0.930)
Vaghasiya et al 16 0.767 (0.701 to 0.825)0.739 (0.702 to 0.774)242.94;
0.32
0.485 (0.428 to 0.543)0.908 (0.879 to 0.932)
Alexander et al 17 0.715 (0.689 to 0.739)0.880 (0.869 to 0.890)255.94;
0.32
0.669 (0.644 to 0.694)0.901 (0.891 to 0.910)
Dent et al 18 0.658 (0.609 to 0.704)0.795 (0.742 to 0.841)593.21;
0.43
0.824 (0.778 to 0.865)0.613 (0.560 to 0.664)
Meta-analysis summary0.724 (0.674 to 0.768)0.832 (0.788 to 0.867)294.30;
0.33
0.63 (0.62 to 0.65)0.12 (0.11 to 0.12)
  • LR, likelihood ratio; NPV, negative predictive value; PPV, positive predictive value.