Table 2

QUADAS-2 assessment for each included paper

Risk of biasApplicability concerns
Patient selectionIndex testReference standardFlow and timingPatient selectionIndex testReference standard
Cameron et al 5 LowLowLowLowLowUnclearLow
Kosowsky et al 7 LowLowLowLowLowLowLow
Beardsell and Robinson8 LowLowLowLowLowLowLow
Stover-Baker et al 15 HighLowLowUnclearLowLowLow
Vaghasiya et al 16 LowLowLowLowLowLowLow
Alexander et al 17 HighLowLowUnclearLowLowLow
Dent et al 18 LowLowLowLowLowUnclearLow
Holdgate et al 19 LowLowLowUnclearLowLowLow
Peck et al 20 LowLowLowLowLowUnclearLow
Noel et al 21 LowLowLowHighLowUnclearLow
  • QUADAS-2, Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2.