Table 1

Baseline, clinical, analytical and radiological characteristics, and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 with acute (myo)pericarditis and comparison with patients with COVID-19 without acute (myo)pericarditis (control group A) and with patients without COVID-19 with acute (myo)pericarditis (control group B)

Cases
(COVID-19 and AMP)
N=67
n (%)
Control group A
(COVID-19 and non-AMP)
N=335
n (%)
Control group B
(non-COVID and AMP)
N=335
n (%)
Demographics
Age (years) (median (IQR)51 (39–71)65 (52–77)*45 (30–66)†
Sex (male)41 (61.2)176 (52.5)237 (70.7)
Comorbidities
Hypertension22 (33.8)153 (45.7)89 (26.6)
Dyslipidaemia13 (19.4)112 (33.4)*72 (21.5)
Diabetes mellitus10 (14.9)60 (17.9)36 (10.7)
Coronary artery disease7 (10.4)25 (7.5)18 (5.4)
Chronic kidney disease6 (9.0)22 (6.6)25 (7.5)
Active cancer6 (9.0)31 (9.3)42 (12.5)
Obesity (clinically estimated)5 (7.5)52 (15.5)32 (9.6)
Asthma5 (7.5)24 (7.2)17 (5.1)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease4 (6.0)28 (8.4)18 (5.4)
Active smoker4 (6.0)22 (6.6)75 (22.4)†
Peripheral artery disease4 (6.0)15 (4.5)15 (4.5)
Chronic liver disease4 (6.0)12 (3.6)12 (3.6)
Chronic heart disease3 (4.5)28 (8.4)22 (6.6)
Cerebrovascular disease3 (4.5)24 (7.2)6 (1.8)
Dementia1 (1.5)30 (9.0)*4 (1.2)
Symptoms at ED arrival
Length of symptoms (days) (median (IQR)5 (1–8)7 (3–10)2 (1–5)†
Chest pain54 (80.6)42 (12.5)*307 (91.6)†
Dyspnoea37 (55.2)185 (5.2)97 (29.0)†
Cough26 (38.8)196 (58.5)*35 (10.4)†
Fever >38°C20 (29.9)198 (59.1)*52 (15.5)†
Abdominal pain9 (13.4)17 (5.1)*13 (3.9)†
Vomiting9 (13.4)24 (7.2)13 (3.9)†
Diarrhoea7 (10.4)54 (16.1)16 (4.8)
Expectoration7 (10.4)49 (14.6)10 (3.0)†
Rhinorrhoea5 (7.5)23 (6.9)10 (3.0)
Dysgeusia3 (4.5)26 (7.8)1 (0.3)†
Anosmia2 (3.0)22 (6.6)1 (0.3)†
Syncope2 (3.0)14 (4.2)5 (1.5)
Signs at ED arrival (median (IQR)
Temperature (°C)36.4 (36.0–37.0)36.6 (36.0–37.3)36.2 (36.0–36.8)
SBP (mm Hg)130 (115–146)125 (114–140)128 (117–140)
HR (bpm)92 (80–106)88 (78–100)85 (75–99)†
RR (bpm)19 (16–24)18 (16–23)16 (14–20)†
Room air pulse oximetry (%)97 (94–99)96 (92–98)*98 (96–99)
Laboratory findings (median (IQR)
Creatinine (mg/dL)0.88 (0.73–1.19)0.87 (0.72–1.10)0.87 (0.75–1.05)
Sodium (mmol/L)139 (135–141)138 (136–140)139 (137–141)
Potassium (mmol/L)4.1 (3.7–4.4)4.0 (3.7–4.4)4.1 (3.9–4.4)
Aspartate aminotransferase (U/L)31 (20–51)30 (22–48)23 (18–37)
Bilirubin (mg/dL)0.72 (0.48–1.43)0.50 (0.36–0.70)*0.64 (0.40–0.97)
Alkaline phosphatase (U/L)71 (54–94)71 (57–95)87 (61–107)
Lactate dehydrogenase (U/L)262 (187–447)278 (211–359)205 (163–255)†
Haemoglobin (g/L)135 (119–150)139 (127–148)140 (128–151)
Leucocyte (×109 cells/L)8.2 (6.6–10.8)6.7 (4.9–9.1)9.3 (6.8–12.6)
Lymphocyte count (×109 cells/L)1.4 (0.8–1.7)1.1 (0.8–1.6)1.7 (1.1–2.3)†
Platelets (×109 cells/L)236 (191–304)206 (161–259)*241 (199–292)
D-dimer (ng/mL)944 (302–2164)640 (370–1280)500 (285–1530)
C-reactive protein (mg/dL)3.2 (0.3–10.4)5.9 (1.9–12.2)*2.0 (0.5–8.1)
Ferritin (ng/mL)429 (44–870)495 (270–1183)184 (134–317)
Procalcitonin (ng/mL)0.06 (0.02–0.28)0.10 (0.06–0.22)0.08 (0.04–0.43)
CXR N=65 N=325 N=316
Cardiomegaly18 (27.7)34 (10.5)*73 (23.0)
Pleural effusion8 (12.3)14 (4.3)*40 (12.6)
Interstitial lung infiltrates21 (32.3)143 (44.0)9 (2.8)†
Ground-glass lung opacities16 (24.6)187 (57.5)*8 (2.5)†
Outcomes
Hospitalisation43 (64.2)253 (75.5)174 (51.9)
Admission to ICU11 (16.4)22 (6.6)*35 (10.4)
Prolonged hospitalisation21 (34.4)133 (39.9)76 (22.8)
In-hospital mortality11 (16.4)55 (16.4)8 (2.4)†
  • p values denote statistically significant differences (p<0.05).

  • *P values refer to comparison between cases and control group A.

  • †P values refer to comparison between cases and control group B.

  • AMP, acute (myo)pericarditis; ICU, intensive care unit.