Table 1

Triage tool comparison

ToolTool components
1st step2nd step3rd step4th step5th step6th step7th step
Paediatric Triage Tape (PTT)6<10 kg:
alert and moving all limbs
11–18 kg:
alert and moving all limbs or walking
>19 kg:
(open airway if required)
<10 kg:
<20 or >50
11–18 kg:
<15 or >45
>19 kg:
<10 or >30
Capillary refill: <2 sHR:
<10 kg:
<90 or >180
11–18 kg:
<80 or >160
>19 kg:
<70 or >140
(open airway if required)
If apnoeic, assess for pulse. If present, give 5 rescue breaths.RR: <15 or >45Palpable pulse?Conscious level assessment (AVPU)§
Sheffield Paediatric Triage Tool (SPTT)Catastrophic haemorrhage?Walking?Breathing
(open airway if required)
If apnoeic, assess for pulse. If present, give 5 rescue breaths.Responds to voice?Age-appropriate RR?*Age-appropriate HR†
Careflight14Walking?Obeys commands?Palpable radial pulse? OR Breathes with open airway?
Major Incident Medical Management and Support (MIMMS) Triage Sieve1Walking?Breathing
(open airway if required)
RR: <10 or ≥30HR: >120
Modified Physiological
Triage Tool 24 (MPTT-24)‡9 10 17
Catastrophic haemorrhage?Walking?Breathing? Open airway if required.Responds to voice?RR: <12 or ≥24HR: ≥100
Modified Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment19Walking?Spontaneous breathingRR: >30Radial pulse absentObeys commands
National Ambulance Service Medical Directors (NASMeD) Triage Sieve18Catastrophic haemorrhageAre they injured?Walking?Breathing? Openairway if requiredUnconsciousRR: <10 or ≥30Pulse >120 or capillary refill >2 s
Rapid Assessment of
Mentation and Pulse (RAMP)20
Casualty without signs of obvious deathCasualty follows commandsRadial pulse present?
  • *RR: <1: 30–40, 1–2: 25–25, 2–5: 25–30, 5–12: 20–25, >12: 15–20.

  • †HR: <1: 110–160, 1–2: 100–150, 2–5: 95–140, 5–12: 80–120, >12: 60–100.

  • ‡MPTT-24 was updated in 2018 following consultation with NHS England to explicitly include the ‘open airway’ step as part of the breathing assessment.17 This current version is currently in use in both UK military and civilian in-hospital practice (within the NHS Clinical Guidelines for Major Incidents).10

  • §AVPU: Alert, responds to Voice, responds to Pain, Unconscious.