Table 1

Changes in baseline characteristics of patients who experienced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Tokyo from before to after declaration of a state of emergency

Variables*20192020Percentage change in 2020
with respect to 2019 (95% CI)
18 Feb–6 Apr
(n=1716)
7 Apr–25 May
(n=1518)
18 Feb–6 Apr
(n=1615)
7 Apr–25 May
(n=1494)
Age group, years†
 0–65408 (23.8)415 (27.3)364 (22.5)313 (21.0)−5.1 (−9.3 to −1.0)
 66–77423 (24.7)346 (22.8)362 (22.4)371 (24.8)4.3 (0.1 to 8.5)
 78–85418 (24.4)352 (23.2)399 (24.7)377 (25.2)1.7 (−2.5 to 5.9)
 86–109467 (27.2)405 (26.7)490 (30.3)433 (29.0)−0.8 (−5.3 to 3.6)
Men989 (57.6)879 (57.9)918 (56.8)860 (57.6)0.5 (−4.4 to 5.3)
Arrest at private residence1181 (68.8)1009 (66.5)1142 (70.7)1063 (71.2)2.8 (−1.8 to 7.3)
Witnessed arrest756 (44.1)679 (44.7)687 (42.5)674 (45.1)1.9 (-3.0 to 6.8)
Witness
 Family359 (20.9)311 (20.5)348 (21.5)353 (23.6)3.4 (−4.0 to 10.8)
 EMS personnel96 (5.6)100 (6.6)91 (5.6)116 (7.8)1.9 (−3.3 to 7.1)
 Healthcare provider46 (2.7)42 (2.8)40 (2.5)45 (3.0)0.8 (−2.8 to 4.3)
 Friend10 (0.6)20 (1.3)7 (0.4)10 (0.7)−1.2 (−3.1 to 0.7)
 Other245 (14.3)206 (13.6)201 (12.4)150 (10.0)−4.9 (−11.6 to 1.8)
Presumed cardiac aetiology1006 (58.6)956 (63.0)962 (59.6)941 (63.0)−0.9 (−5.7 to 3.9)
AED use by a bystander40 (2.3)58 (3.8)21 (1.3)23 (1.5)−1.3 (−2.7 to 0.2)
Dispatcher CPR instructions789 (46.0)696 (45.8)735 (45.5)783 (52.4)8.5 (3.4 to 13.7)
Initial VF/VT cardiac rhythm93 (5.4)100 (6.6)89 (5.5)108 (7.2)0.6 (−1.8 to 2.9)
Epinephrine administration190 (11.1)173 (11.4)180 (11.1)157 (10.5)−1.0 (−4.1 to 2.1)
Call-to-response time, min†
 <4327 (19.1)322 (21.2)335 (20.7)272 (18.2)−4.7 (−8.6 to −0.8)
 4–5485 (28.3)478 (31.5)529 (32.8)525 (35.1)−0.8 (−5.4 to 3.7)
 6–8389 (22.7)345 (22.7)402 (24.9)373 (25.0)0.0 (−4.2 to 4.2)
 8–69515 (30.0)373 (24.6)349 (21.6)324 (21.7)5.5 (1.3 to 9.8)
On-scene time, min†
 <14351 (20.5)342 (22.5)296 (18.3)210 (14.1)−6.3 (−10.2 to −2.5)
 14–17546 (31.8)422 (27.8)459 (28.4)346 (23.2)−1.2 (−5.7 to 3.2)
 18–21423 (24.7)364 (24.0)427 (26.4)394 (26.4)0.6 (−3.7 to 4.9)
 21–129396 (23.1)390 (25.7)433 (26.8)544 (36.4)7.0 (2.6 to 11.4)
Transport time, min†
 <6365 (21.3)308 (20.3)327 (20.2)294 (19.7)0.4 (−3.6 to 4.4)
 6–8416 (24.2)387 (25.5)377 (23.3)429 (28.7)−2.5 (−6.8 to 1.9)
 9–12462 (26.9)402 (26.5)448 (27.7)371 (24.8)−2.1 (−6.5 to 2.3)
 13–170473 (27.6)421 (27.7)463 (28.7)400 (26.8)4.1 (−0.2 to 8.4)
Call-to-hospital time, min†
 3–27437 (25.5)392 (25.8)377 (23.3)248 (16.6)−7.1 (−11.2 to −3.0)
 28–33477 (27.8)400 (26.4)452 (28.0)398 (26.6)0.0 (−4.3 to 4.5)
 34–39394 (23.0)345 (22.7)388 (24.0)365 (24.4)0.6 (−3.5 to 4.8)
 40–208408 (23.8)381 (25.1)398 (24.6)483 (32.3)6.4 (2.0 to 10.7)
  • *Data are presented as number (%).

  • †Numerical variables were categorised into quartiles.

  • AED, automated external defibrillator; CPR, cardiopulmonary resuscitation; EMS, emergency medical services; VF, ventricular fibrillation; VT, ventricular tachycardia.