Table 4

Multivariable analyses of factors associated with patient outcomes within 48 hours of the emergency call among paramedic-initiated non-transports, including paramedic exposure

RecontactED presentationHospital admission
OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
Male gender1.14 (0.97 to 1.34)1.06 (0.96 to 1.18)1.20 (0.96 to 1.50)
Patient age
 0–11 monthsRefRefRef
 1–4 years0.99 (0.73 to 1.33)0.77 (0.66 to 0.90)0.54 (0.40 to 0.73)
 5–11 years1.09 (0.80 to 1.48)0.54 (0.45 to 0.65)0.32 (0.22 to 0.46)
 12–17 years1.62 (1.19 to 2.21)0.71 (0.59 to 0.86)0.31 (0.21 to 0.47)
Hour of day
 00:00–04:001.34 (1.00 to 1.80)1.00 (0.82 to 1.21)0.89 (0.58 to 1.34)
 04:00–08:001.13 (0.78 to 1.62)1.15 (0.93 to 1.43)1.61 (1.07 to 2.42)
 08:00–12:001.28 (0.97 to 1.70)1.13 (0.95 to 1.34)1.30 (0.90 to 1.89)
 12:00–16:00RefRefRef
 16:00–20:001.31 (1.02 to 1.68)1.03 (0.88 to 1.20)1.02 (0.72 to 1.44)
 20:00–00:001.18 (0.92 to 1.53)0.92 (0.78 to 1.09)0.56 (0.38 to 0.83)
Weekend0.96 (0.80 to 1.14)1.01 (0.91 to 1.14)0.99 (0.77 to 1.27)
Major city residential address0.71 (0.59 to 0.87)0.79 (0.70 to 0.91)0.75 (0.56 to 1.00)
Time-critical dispatch code0.77 (0.65 to 0.91)0.93 (0.84 to 1.04)0.95 (0.74 to 1.21)
Medical case nature1.50 (1.20 to 1.87)1.41 (1.21 to 1.64)2.38 (1.68 to 3.36)
Paramedic diagnosis
 No problem identifiedRefRefRef
 Mental health/Social/Behavioural issue or Alcohol/Drug related1.92 (1.44 to 2.56)0.85 (0.66 to 1.10)1.82 (1.06 to 3.13)
 Respiratory condition1.19 (0.85 to 1.66)1.45 (1.18 to 1.79)1.57 (1.03 to 2.38)
 Neurological condition1.96 (1.43 to 2.69)0.87 (0.65 to 1.15)0.81 (0.43 to 1.54)
 Infection1.56 (1.15 to 2.12)1.93 (1.59 to 2.34)1.84 (1.24 to 2.74)
 Gastrointestinal/Genitourinary condition1.21 (0.79 to 1.84)1.75 (1.35 to 2.26)2.01 (1.22 to 3.30)
 Other medical condition0.85 (0.59 to 1.23)1.28 (1.03 to 1.59)1.14 (0.71 to 1.85)
 Musculoskeletal issue/Traumatic injury0.58 (0.38 to 0.89)2.54 (2.08 to 3.10)2.23 (1.36 to 3.66)
 Pain0.48 (0.28 to 0.80)2.22 (1.77 to 2.79)1.71 (0.94 to 3.10)
 Unknown problem1.11 (0.68 to 1.82)1.46 (1.08 to 1.98)1.55 (0.82 to 2.91)
Paramedic treatment provided1.16 (0.87 to 1.56)1.38 (1.17 to 1.63)1.85 (1.28 to 2.67)
Abnormal vital sign0.92 (0.76 to 1.12)1.07 (0.94 to 1.21)1.16 (0.91 to 1.50)
Documented non-transport reason
 Transport not requiredRefRefRef
 Referred to GP/Another provider1.19 (0.99 to 1.42)1.46 (1.31 to 1.64)1.22 (0.96 to 1.56)
Highest experience level of crew (per year)1.01 (1.00 to 1.02)1.01 (1.00 to 1.01)1.00 (0.99 to 1.02)
Crew exposure
 Mean exposure in preceding 12 months (per 10 cases)1.01 (1.00 to 1.01)1.00 (1.00 to 1.01)1.00 (1.00 to 1.01)
 Proportion that were paediatric (per 10 percent)0.97 (0.69 to 1.36)0.84 (0.67 to 1.04)0.78 (0.49 to 1.26)
 Proportion that were not transported (per 10 percent)1.11 (0.95 to 1.29)1.12 (1.02 to 1.23)1.29 (1.07 to 1.58)
  • ED, emergency department; GP, general practitioner; Ref, reference.