Table 1

Baseline characteristics of patients in the serial ultrasound and the control group

Serial ultrasound group (n=102)Control group (n=104)
Sites
 Slagelse Hospital102101
 Horsens Hospital02
 Zealand University Hospital01
Patient characteristics
Sex
 Female42(41.2)52(50.0)
 Male60(58.8)52(50.0)
Age, years76(66–83)76(66–81)
BMI, mean, kg/m2 26.6(5.7)27.5(7.0)
Smoking status
 Never25(24.5)20(19.2)
 Current14(13.7)15(14.4)
 Previous63(61.8)69(66.3)
Medical history
 COPD36(35.3)34(32.7)
 Asthma18(17.6)7(6.7)
 Other lung disease4(3.9)0(0.0)
 Chronic heart failure28(27.5)19(18.3)
 Arterial hypertension55(53.9)49(47.1)
 Coronary arterial disease27(26.5)27(26.0)
 Thromboembolic disease5(4.9)8(7.7)
 Stroke13(12.7)17(16.3)
 Chronic kidney disease5(4.9)9(8.7)
 Diabetes mellitus21(20.6)16(15.4)
 Psychiatric disorder13(12.7)14(13.5)
 Current or previous cancer15(14.7)24(23.1)
 Dyslipidaemia29(28.4)31(29.8)
 Atrial fibrillation/flutter35(34.3)25(24.0)
 None5(4.9)5(4.8)
 Others70(68.6)75(72.1)
Symptoms and physical examination
 Chest pain27(26.5)25(24.0)
 Cough56(54.9)53(51.0)
 Sputum34(33.3)36(34.6)
 Palpitations19(18.6)13(12.5)
 RR, brpm21(18–23)20(18–23)
 Oxygen saturation, %95(92–98)96(93–98)
 Oxygen supply, L/min1(1–1)1(1–1)
 Oxygen delivery method
  Nasal cannula30(29.4)21(20.2)
  Mask4(3.9)13(12.5)
  Other2(2.0)1(1.0)
 Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg138(124–152)136(120–152)
 Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg75(64–90)74(65–85)
 Heart rate, bpm88(76–105)85(74–103)
 Temperature, °C36.5(36.5–37.3)36.5(36.5–37.2)
 Oedema
  None65(63.7)69(66.3)
  One leg2(2.0)0(0.0)
  Both legs35(34.3)35(33.7)
Focused lung ultrasound
 B-lines present87(85.3)77(74.0)
 Sum of B-lines in eight zones5(2–9)2(0–9)
 Consolidation38(37.3)29(27.9)
 Absence of lung sliding1(1.0)2(1.9)
 Pleural effusion46(45.1)29(27.9)
Focused cardiac ultrasound
 Ejection fraction
  Normal50(49.0)58(55.8)
  Mild dysfunction21(20.6)19(18.3)
  Moderate dysfunction15(14.7)15(14.4)
  Severe dysfunction14(13.7)7(6.7)
  Hyperdynamic2(2.0)5(4.8)
 Pericardial effusion1(1.0)2(1.9)
 Right ventricle dilatation5(4.9)5(4.8)
 TAPSE, mm20(16–24)20(16–24)
 IVC max diameter, mm20(20–20)20(10–20)
 IVC min diameter, mm10(10–20)10(10–20)
 IVC-CI, %36(25–56)39(23–61)
Most common final ED diagnoses
 Acute heart failure41(40.2%)40(38.5%)
 Pneumonia34(33.3%)28(26.9%)
 Exacerbation of COPD22(21.6%)26(25.0%)
  • Data are n (%) or median (IQR), unless otherwise noted.

  • ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; BMI, body mass index; brpm, breaths per minute; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; IVC, inferior vena cava; NSAID, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; PPI, proton pump inhibitors; TAPSE, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion.