Table 1

Observed data on characteristics of the study population and diagnosis

Adults (%)Children (%)
Total number of patients2113202
Prospective inclusion426 (20.2)13 (6.4)
Retrospective inclusion1687 (79.8)189 (93.6)
Age
1–3 years77 (38.1)
4–6 years44 (21.8)
7–12 years51 (25.2)
13–17 years30 (14.9)
18–30 years695 (32.9)
31–45 years665 (31.5)
46–65 years568 (26.8)
≥65 years182 (8.6)
Median age, years40 (IQR 28–51)5 (IQR 2–10)
Sex
Female1046 (49.5)94 (46.5)
Region visited*
Sub-Saharan Africa769 (36.3)90 (44.6)
Asia & Pacific794 (37.5)66 (32.7)
South/Latin America187 (8.8)10 (5.0)
South Europe (subtropical area)62 (2.9)8 (4.0)
Middle East/North Africa233 (11.0)27 (13.4)
North America (subtropical area)13 (0.6)1 (0.5)
Final diagnosis
Malaria100 (4.7)12 (5.9)
Dengue86 (4.0)4 (1.9)
Influenza149 (7.1)9 (4.4)
Gastroenteritis clinical diagnosis†209 (9.9)26 (12.9)
Gastroenteritis confirmed aetiology‡251 (11.9)8 (3.9)
URTI89 (4.2)22 (10.9)
Pneumonia§78 (3.7)6 (2.9)
Pyelonephritis23 (1.1)3 (1.5)
Rickettsia17 (0.8)0
Typhoid fever17 (0.8)3 (1.5)
Other¶235 (11.1)32 (15.8)
No diagnosis**853 (40.5)67 (33.1)
  • *Tropical areas defined as regions of earth surrounding the equator. In latitude by the tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere at 23°26’11.0” and the tropic of Capricorn in the Southern hemisphere at 23°26’11.0”. Subtropics defined as 23°26’11.0” to approximately 45° in the Northern and Southern hemispheres.

  • †Defined as a clinical diagnosis where no aetiology was found or where no further viral or bacterial analysis was done.

  • ‡Bacterial or viral aetiology identified, that is, Campylobacter, Salmonella, Rotavirus, other.

  • §Defined as radiology results.

  • ¶Other non-tropical diseases such as tonsillitis, appendicitis, Kawasaki, etc.

  • **No clinical or aetiology-defined diagnoses were found such as abdominal pain, non-specific fever, etc.

  • URTI, upper respiratory tract infection.